By Jaakko Hintikka
I n order to understand competently what we're doing during this ebook it is crucial to achieve that our method of linguistic theorizing differs from the existing perspectives. Our procedure may be defined via indicating what distinguishes it from the methodological rules present in theoretical linguistics, which I reflect on heavily inaccurate. Linguists more often than not construe their activity at present as that of creating exceptionless generalizations from specific examples. This explanatory technique is incorrect in numerous other ways. It presupposes that we will be able to have "intuitions" approximately specific examples, frequently examples invented by way of the linguist himself or herself, trustworthy and sharp sufficient to function a foundation of sharp generalizations. It additionally presupposes that we won't have both trustworthy direct entry to normal linguistic regularities. either assumptions seem to me super doubtful, and the 1st of them has in impression been challenged by means of linguists like Dwight Bol inger. there's additionally a few proof that the measure of unanimity between linguists within reason low in terms of much less transparent instances, even in reference to such really basic questions as grammaticality (acceptability). consequently we've got attempted to depend extra on quotations from modern fiction, newspapers and magazines than on linguists' and philosophers' advert hoc examples. I additionally locate it unusual that a number of the comparable linguists as think that all of us own innate rules approximately normal features of humanly attainable grammars suppose that we will be able to have entry to them purely through their specific consequences.
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Extra info for Anaphora and Definite Descriptions: Two Applications of Game-Theoretical Semantics
Hence the following is a legitimate example: (47) A stockbroker and his mother I ive in a village close to Sturbridge castle. es for a walk. This is easily treated by means of GTS. The subgame associated with the first sentence has to be dealt with first by the players. Two ap~lications of (G. a(n)) and one application of (G. genitive) yield something like (48) Kenneth Widmerpool and Ethel Widmerpool live in Sturbridge Greens close to Sturbridge castle. Kenneth Widmerpool is a stockbroker. Sturbridge Greens is a village.
But if so, why do the following pairs of examples exhibit a distinct difference in meaning? (21) (22) (23) (24) Dick is not the person who altered the tape. Dick is not the only person who altered the tape. George forgot that the author of Waverley is Scott. George forgot that the only author of Waverley is Scott. An answer is easy. The rules (G. Russellian the) and (G. the only) are governed by different ordering principles. In fact, it is easily seen that this explains the differences between (21 )-(22) and between (23)-(24).
Cond) for conditionals; and (0. each), which says that (G. ltificational rules. These principles explain, among other things, the force of the following sentences: (40) (41) (42) (43) (44) Richard doesnlt date any girl. John cannot beat Jim or anyone else. If anyone comes, II" be surprised. You may pick any apple, but you must not pick every apple. Some man or boy loves each girl. 9. Competing Ordering Principles In view of their importance as systematic explanatory tools, our ordering principle deserve a few more comments.