By J. Inczédy and I. Buzás (Auth.)
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Extra resources for Analytical Applications of Ion Exchangers
Furthermore, the fact should be taken into account that the ionic density is high in the modern ion-exchange 50 THEORY OF ION-EXCHANGE resin and the resin must be regarded as a concentrated solution. According to calculations for a moderately cross-hnked resin, 9 - 1 0 water molecules surround a potassium ion. This corresponds to a solution of about 6 M. In such a concentrated solution the interaction of ions also plays a considerable part. N o t only Coulomb forces exist between the ions but other polarisation, induction and London forces become predominant.
8. J. V. R. Smith, W. Robb and J. J. Jacobs, J. Inorg. , 1959, 1 2 , 104. 9. H. O. Phillips, F. Nelson and K. A. Kraus, ORNL, 1956, 2159, 37. 10. K. A. Kraus and H. O. Phillips, J. Amer. Chem. Soc, 1956, 7 8 , 249. 11. H. A. Sober and E. A. Peterson, / . Amer. Chem. Soc, 1954,76, 1711; 1956, 7 8 , 751. 12. J. D . Guthrie and A. L. Bullock, Ind. Eng. ,1960, 5 2 , 935; Analyt. , 1962, 9 , 1269. 13. G. Semenza, Helv. Chim. Acta, 1960, 4 3 , 1057. 14. N. V. Stamicarbon, Holl. Pat. 75705, 1954. 15. Directie van De Staatsmijnen in Limburg, Holl.
A Doman equilibrium occurs bet ween two electrolyte solutions separa κ, Η ted by a semi-permeable membrane if in one of the solutions is dissolved a salt, only one ion of which can per meate through the membrane. A diffu sion process is started by the difference FIG. 3. Gregorys model for in osmotic pressures caused by the con the thermodynamic treatment centration differences, until equiUbrium of selectivity of ion exchangers^* ionic concentrations are finally reached on both sides. Because of the unequal mobiUty of ions the concen tration distribution at equiUbrium is such that the tendency of ions to diffuse is in equiUbrium with the electrical field originating from the charges of the ions.