By Doris A. Fuchs (auth.)
What is the position of presidency in environmental politics and coverage? the reply to this question was fairly transparent. govt was once to manage the environmental functionality of country and non-state actors, to set criteria, impose fees, and determine kind of stringent standards of appropriate habit. With the expanding visual appeal of the problems of globalization and international governance within the political technological know-how literature, despite the fact that, the focal point has became to the function of non-state actors. educational study and the preferred debate have pointed out company, non-governmental enterprises (NGOs), and civil society as resembling more and more very important and almost certainly robust actors within the political area. even as, a few observers have proclaimed the impact of presidency to be declining. Others have argued that the position of presidency essentially is altering instead of declining. those that undertake the latter viewpoint postulate that the hot position for presidency during this altering political and socio-economic context is to set the framework for motion. during this viewpoint, executive continues to be of basic significance for the functioning of the society, the economic system, and political decision-making, yet its function is diverse in that govt 'merely' presents the institutional framework facilitating wanted outcomes.
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Additional info for An Institutional Basis for Environmental Stewardship: The Structure and Quality of Property Rights
Apart from post-materialism, authors frequently identify other characteristics as cultural determinants of policy outcomes, although they often fail to differentiate sufficiently between culture, ideology, and ideas. Enloe (1975), for instance, argues that whether environmental problems will be understood and publicly discussed is a cultural characteristic, which in tum will influence environmental outcomes. Likewise, Bohmer-Christiansen and Skea (1991) claim that German history has led to greater pessimism in the culture and therefore a more careful stance towards environmental problems.
S analyses, for the impact of most of the policy variables parallel the frequent lack of a compelling theoretical foundation for the form and combination in which they are introduced in regressions and correlations. In several cases, the authors themselves suggest that even the 'significant' relationships might be spurious. Likewise, scholars argue that the empirical results may be biased by missing variables, such as the composition of production and consumption, international trade, power and income inequalities, the density of economic activity, rates of economic growth, energy prices, and external shocks (Rothman and de Bruyn, 1998).
Neither democracy and centralization, nor environmental effort and income distributions could be shown to be determinative factors of environmental quality. Given that cultural values are difficult to influence in the short term, the results suggested improvements in institutional capacity as the most promising avenue for governments to foster environmental quality at any given level of development. Furthermore, these findings promised that further inquiries into the implications of the structure and quality of institutions for the environment would be appropriate and led to the conceptual analyses presented in the next chapters.