By William S. Massey

ISBN-10: 0387902716

ISBN-13: 9780387902715

Ocr'd

William S. Massey Professor Massey, born in Illinois in 1920, bought his bachelor's measure from the collage of Chicago after which served for 4 years within the U.S. army in the course of international conflict II. After the warfare he acquired his Ph.D. from Princeton college and spent extra years there as a post-doctoral learn assistant. He then taught for ten years at the school of Brown collage, and moved to his current place at Yale in 1960. he's the writer of diverse study articles on algebraic topology and similar themes. This booklet built from lecture notes of classes taught to Yale undergraduate and graduate scholars over a interval of a number of years.

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This quantity grew from a dialogue by way of the editors at the hassle of discovering strong thesis difficulties for graduate scholars in topology. even though at any given time we each one had our personal favourite difficulties, we said the necessity to supply scholars a much wider choice from which to settle on a subject unusual to their pursuits.

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**Additional resources for Algebraic Topology: An Introduction**

**Sample text**

D . . c“ . . d‘l . , where the dots denote the possible occurrence of other letters). To prove this assertion, assume that the edges labeled c are not sepa- rated by any other pair of the ﬁrst kind. 20. Here A and B each designate a whole sequence of edges. The important point is that any edge in A must be identiﬁed with another edge in A, and similarly for B. No edge in A is to be identiﬁed with an edge in B. But this contradicts the fact that the initial and ﬁnal vertices of either edge labeled “c” are to be identiﬁed, in view of step number three.

The fact that the set of all the triangles with v as a vertex can be divided into several disjoint subsets, such that the triangles in each subset can be arranged in cyclic order as described, is an easy consequence of condition (1). However, if there were more than one such subset, then the requirement that 22 have a neighborhood homeomorphic to U2 would be violated. We shall not attempt a rigorous proof of this last assertion. 1 Let S be a compact surface. 1 by prov- ing that S is homeomorphic to a polygon with the edges identiﬁed in pairs as indicated by one of the symbols listed at the end of Section 5.

It is readily seen that the set of interior points is an open everywhere dense subset; hence, the set of boundary points is a closed set. The set of boundary points of an n—dimensional manifold is an (n — 1)-dimensional manifold. The interior is a noncompact n-manifold. The reader should note that the terms “interior” and “boundary” were used in the preceding paragraphs in a sense different from that which is usual in point set topology. However, this will seldom lead to any confusion. Examples show that a manifold with boundary may be compact or noncompact, connected or not connected.