By James K. Hoffmeier
Pharaoh Akhenaten, who reigned for seventeen years within the fourteenth century B.C.E, is likely one of the such a lot interesting rulers of historic Egypt. His peculiar visual appeal and his preoccupation with worshiping the solar disc Aten have encouraged educational dialogue and controversy for greater than a century. regardless of the various books and articles approximately this enigmatic determine, many questions about Akhenaten and the Atenism faith stay unanswered.
In Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism, James okay. Hoffmeier argues that Akhenaten used to be now not, as is usually stated, a thorough advocating a brand new faith yet relatively a primitivist: that's, person who reaches again to a golden age and emulates it. Akhenaten's proposal used to be the previous nation (2650-2400 B.C.E.), whilst the sun-god Re/Atum governed because the unmatched head of the Egyptian pantheon. Hoffmeier unearths that Akhenaten used to be a real convert to the worship of Aten, the only real writer God, in response to the Pharoah's personal testimony of a theophany, a divine stumble upon that introduced his monotheistic spiritual odyssey.
The booklet additionally explores the Atenist religion's attainable dating to Israel's faith, delivering a detailed comparability of the hymn to the Aten to Psalm 104, which has been pointed out by way of students as stimulated by way of the Egyptian hymn.
Through a cautious analyzing of key texts, works of art, and archaeological experiences, Hoffmeier offers compelling new insights on a faith that predated Moses and Hebrew monotheism, the effect of Atenism on Egyptian faith and politics, and the aftermath of Akhenaten's reign.
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Additional resources for Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism
K. Simpson, R. O. Faulkner, & E. F. Wente, The Literature of Ancient Egypt (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1973), 15. , Story of Sinuhe, Wisdom of Amenemhet, Prophecy of Neferti). c. onward? On the literary and oral dimensions of folktales, see Susan T. Hollis, “Tales of Magic and Wonder from Ancient Egypt,” in CANE, 2255–2264. For studies on early 12th Dynasty apologetic literature, see A. de Buck, “La Litterérature et la politique sous la douzième dynastie,” in Symbolae ad jus et historian antiquitatis pertinentes Juli Christiano van Overn dedicatae (eds.
C. 14 Statue of Khafre with Horus (Cairo Museum). Photo James K. Hoffmeier. 113 J. E Quibell, Excavations at Saqqara (1908–9, 1909–10): The Monastery of Apa Jeremias (Cairo: IFAO, 1912), pl. 89. 114 For examples, see Gardiner, Peet, & ČernÝ, The Inscriptions of Sinai I, pl. VI, VIII. 15 Sun-disc over Sahure (Saqqara). J. E Quibell, Excavations at Saqqara (1908–9, 1909–10): The Monastery of Apa Jeremias (Cairo: IFAO, 1912), pl. 89. In a detailed scene of Ni-user-re at Maghara, he is “smiting Bedouin of all foreign lands” (sḳr mntyw ḫȝswt nb(w)t),115 and a victim raises his hand begging for mercy as the king is about to bludgeon him.
18. 33 In the Book of the Dead (Spell 165), dating from New Kingdom times, Amun is presented as “the eldest of the gods (of ) the east of the sky, Amon, thou hidden of aspect, mysterious of form” . . ”34 It is apparent that Amun’s very name communicates something about him. When depicted in relief or as a statue, Amun is invariably shown as a man, often as a blue figure that likely represented the air in the sky. 2). 2 Ramesses II before Amun-Re (Karnak Temple). Photo James K. Hoffmeier. V. A.