By Mira Ariel
Gaining access to Noun-Phrase Antecedents deals an intensive shift within the research of discourse anaphora, from a merely pragmatic account to a cognitive account, by way of processing strategies. Mira Ariel defines referring expressions as markers signalling the measure of Accessibility in reminiscence of the antecedent. The suggestion of Accessibility is explicitly outlined, the the most important components being the Salience of the antecedent, and the harmony among the antecedent and the anaphor.
This research yields an remarkable array of recent effects. the correct distribution of referring expressions in real discourse is without delay estimated. numerous universals of anaphoric relatives are acknowledged. hence, even if now not all languages unavoidably have a similar markers, and nor do they assign them exactly the similar functionality, Ariel exhibits that all of them obey an analogous Accessibility marking hierarchy.
This booklet could be obligatory examining for a person with an curiosity within the semantics and pragmatics of referring expressions, within the interplay of semantics and pragmatics, and extra quite often within the interplay among peripheral and crucial cognitive platforms.
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Additional info for Accessing Noun-Phrase Antecedents
G. 49). Thus, the degree of attenuation increases after the first mention of the New entity, but it decreases after a while. Whereas 92 per cent of the references to non-recent entities in his data were performed by what I call Intermediate and Low Accessibility Markers, only 36 per cent of the references to current entities used Intermediate and Low Accessibility Markers. The numbers for High Access ibility Markers are a mirror image. Whereas in 64 per cent of the references made to current entities High Accessibility Markers were used, non-recent entities were referred to by High Access ibility Markers only in 8 per cent of the cases.
9 Hence, they should occur whenever their antecedents are not currently salient. Forms initially used to refer to the Physical Environment (deictics and demonstrative expressions) retrieve antecedents whose status of Accessibility is intermediate. Last, forms seemingly restricted to the Linguistic Context (pronouns, gaps) are to be used only when the antecedent is highly accessible. Not only the invented examples [2-6] above argue against a ‘geographic context’ account for referring expressions’ distribu tion.
Sifro . . . his-book . . (Haaretz, 14 May 1985) A statistical examination of the same three texts mentioned above indicates clearly that proper names differ in degrees of Accessibility, such that full names are lowest, and first names are highest. e. 2% 58=100% 79=100% 49=100% Summing up Low Accessibility marking, the findings suggest that a combination of a proper name with some modifier represents the lowest Accessibility. More substantial evidence was presented showing that full names are lower on the Accessibility scale than definite descriptions, though the latter can themselves be distinguished as to various degrees of Accessibility, depending on the amount of lexical inform ation they contain.