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By Manfred Krifka, Austinlsaarbriicken

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Yes / No (1) Yes (2) Yes (3) Yes (4) Yes Comment In fact, there is very little constancy of reference in language. In everyday discourse almost all of the fixing of reference comes from the context in which expressions are used. Two different expressions can have the same referent. The classic example is the Morning Star and the Evening Star, both of which normally refer to the planet Venus. 28 UNIT 3 Reference and sense Practice (1) In a conversation about the United States of America in 2007 can the President and the Leader of the Republican Party have the same referent?

However, to simplify matters here we shall assume that in some, possibly very few, cases, perfect translation IS possible. We shall have a lot to say in later units about utterances, sentences and propositions, since these concepts are at the bottom of all talk about meaning. We shall see that we have to be very careful, when talking about meaning, to make it clear whether we are dealing with utterances or sentences. To this end we shall try summarizing the relationship between these notions. We shall use the terms ‘proposition’, ‘sentence’, and ‘utterance’ in such a way that anything that can be said of propositions can also be said of utterances, but not necessarily vice versa, and anything that can be said of sentences can also be said of utterances, but not necessarily vice versa.

Including] semantic theory . . is complete’ (p. 11). 15 UNIT 2 SENTENCES, UTTERANCES, AND PROPOSITIONS Introduction This unit introduces some basic notions in semantics. It is important that you master these notions from the outset as they will keep recurring throughout the course. Instruction Read the following out loud: Virtue is its own reward Now read it out loud again. e. two unique physical events took place. Definition An UTTERANCE is any stretch of talk, by one person, before and after which there is silence on the part of that person.

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